Marius Petipa was born in Marseille, France in 1818 relocated to St. Petersburg in 1847 from Italy and passed away in Gurzuf Ukraine in 1910. He worked for nearly 60 years at the Mariinsky Theatre in St.
Petersburg and had an extensive impact on contemporary classical Russian ballet. He directed a lot of the best artists in Russian ballet and developed ballets that retain an important position in Russian dance repertoire.
After Marius Petipa’s launching in Nantes, France, in 1838, he danced in Belgium, France, and the United States prior to accepting an engagement in Spain, where he gathered product for ballets later produced in Russia. He developed a credibility as a gifted pantomime artist and among the exceptional dancers of his day. Petipa made his preliminary look at the St. Petersburg Mariinsky Theatre in 1847 in Paquita. For his partner, the ballerina Mariya Surovshchikova, he developed Le Marche des Paris (1859; “Parisian Market”; staged as Le Marche des innocents, 1861).
His first impressive success was La fille du pharaon (1862; “The Pharaoh’s Child”). Later, after becoming choreographer in 1862 and chief choreographer in 1869, Petipa produced more than 60 ballets, working from thoroughly detailed strategies that became the basis of contemporary classical ballet in Russia. He worked together with Tchaikovsky on The Nutcracker (Casse Noisette, choreographed by his assistant Lev Ivanov) and The Sleeping Beauty and provided variations of Swan Lake, Raymonda, and Giselle that have actually been revived frequently.
To name a few major ballets are his Don Quixote (1869 ), La Bayadere (1877 ), and Le Corsaire(1899). The author who collaborated with Petipa in creating Don Quixote ballet was Aloisius Ludwig Minkus. His biographical info is very varied however the most typically information on his origin mentions that he was born in Vienna in 1826. There are opinions that he was of Polish or Czech origin. His first compositions were light music for dancing. His first public discussion of ballet music was an e n’tracte included into a Moscow performance of Adam’s Orfa.
In1861 Minkus worked in the Bolshoi Theater, initially as violin musician, later on he became a composer of the theatre and in 1864 he was ended up being a ballet author at the Bolshoi. His profession in Bolshoi was interrupted by the trip to France and on returning to Russia the composer began creating ballet music for Petipa’s works. In 1868 Petipa made Don Quixote ballet for the Bolshoi Theater, with music composed by Minkus in the exact same year. The ballet was a well-deserved success being first performed in 1869 in Bolshoi Theater in Moscow. It was fame for both Minkus and Petipa.
This was beginning of fruitful activity by Minkus, and in 1877 appeared among his most effective structures La Bayadere, Roxana or The Charm from Montenegro in 1878 and lots of others. Though the ballet by Petipa on music by Minkus was not the very first effort to put the popular unique into music and dances Petipa’s variation of Don Quixote, is thought about as the basic ballet version of Cervantes’ story with the popular virtuoso pas de deux. The lot of ballet success depends on the style of this ballet which is mainly determined by Minkus’ music.
Minkus ballet music is filled with rhythm, vigour and energetic melody. Don Quixote music is often regarded as ordinary music which does not exceed the bounds of conventional accompaniment to the dance. In reality, Don Quixote rating is without rich colors normal of later ballet music, it does not check out moving lyricism like Swan’s Lake by Tchaikovsky. We also can not feel any symphonic depth or other functions which are distinct for the best ballet ratings. However, this music is remarkable dancing, with deep rich rhythm and therefore it helps the dance to adopt the required emotionality and intensity.
Don Quixote music is vibrant and it is very crucial for the funny performance, it explores hot mood, melody and pleasant enthusiasm the features so common for Spanish melodies. Minkus’ music is both the accompaniment and impulse to dance. Don Quixote is referred to as a “bol’shoi balet” in the Soviet brochure of Petipa’s works (Slonimsky 1971, 377-388). A translation of the French ballet a grand phenomenon, the term is used to explain ballets that look like nineteenth-century grand operas in their length, the intricacy of their stories, and propensity toward visual spectacle.
(Scholl 1994, 4-5) Because these works dominated the Petersburg phase from the 1860s through the 1890s, and due to the fact that Russian ballet had no major competitors in Europe by the 1870s, the Petipa “grand ballet” has concerned represent the ballet design of the late nineteenth century. Petipa, the creator of romantic dance in Russia, developed two variations of the ballet– one was produced specially for Bolshoi Theater and the second one was produced for Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg.
This 2nd version contained such components like “white act” with its strict proportion and the popular last virtuoso pas de deux. As Scholl observes, prior to the work was staged in St Petersburg, Peterburgskaya gazeta, the paper best representing local balletomane opinion, reported on the Moscow production: Don Quixote was staged in Moscow in the decadent manner. As an example, numerous dances were staged so that on one side of the phase they danced one method, and on the other side, to the exact same music, other dances were carried out. (1 September 1901), (57 )
Petipa’s main objections focus around the primacy of dance in Don Quixote in which, scenery, and costumes were of secondary importance and respectively the music needed to act just as accompaniment and reward. Don Quixote is an effective combination of perfect and vivid dancing with emotional music. While being brisk and full of vigor the Minkus’ music in no chance dominates the dance itself. The dancers appear prior to the viewers in their full advantage. As it was already specified the music was best fit for the plot related to occasions with hot Spanish characters.
This music is identified by its gift to set any listener to feel like dancing. And that was, probably, why precisely Muniks’ music was chosen for this ballet. Minkus loved waltz and his enthusiasm for that style identified the presence of gypsies, rajahs, Spanish bullfighters, Indian temple maidens dancing to a waltz rhythm in Don Quixote ballet. Though the ballet does not have clear development of the plot it attracts the spectators by its effervescent, masterly dances parade so prolific in the ballet.
The dance here works as the natural expression of the action happening on the stage. Don Quixote heroes are not basic performers of many dance problems; they reside in their dance and express through it their thoughts and sensations. The viewer gladly forgives the bit parts prepared for Don Quixote and his faithful Sancho Panza and easily accepts cheerful Kitri and her good friend Basilio. These two young heroes are definitely better suited for such vivid and enthusiastic music than old knight in heavy armour.
Petipa shows an impressive command of mass on the stage and the type taken by his dancing reveals substantial imagination. The choreography and staging Petipa developed for the ballet were similarly ostentatious. The ballet’s ballabile included 36 dancers with baskets of flowers on their heads consisting of kids who suddenly appeared in the dance’s final pose. Scholl summarize Petipa’s choreography as “the culmination of the development of a specific kind of theatrical dancing, developed to exploit the scenic potential of the proscenium stage.
The ballet’s focus of the human body’s optimum legibility evolved as the Renaissance viewpoint phase was established”. (8) As repercussion, the perfect mix of Petipa’s choreographic technique and Minkus’ music developed into a warm funny with farcical aspects. Petipa-Minkus ballet Don Quixote persuades the spectator that ballet is excellent art. Ballet can reveal thoughts, produce consistency and an important map of the world as any other creative kind of expression. Reference list: Koegler, Horst. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Ballet, 2nd ed.
Oxford, 1982. Noble, Jeremy. “Legends of the Maryinsky.” Dance Publication. Vol. 73. Concern: 6. June 1999, p. 57. Scholl, Tim From Petipa to Balanchine: Classical Revival and the Modernization of Ballet. New York: Routledge, 1994 Sedov, Yaroslav. “Inside the Bolshoi”. Russian Life. Vol. 47. Problem: 6. November-December 2004, p. 22–, “The Museum of Ballet”. Russian Life. Vol. 48. Concern: 1. January-February 2005, p. 38 Slonimsky, Yuri. Marius Petipa: materialy, vospominaniya, stat’i. [Marius Petipa: Products, Reminiscences, Articles], Leningrad, 1971