Homegoing A Brief History of Ghana and the Gold Coast

The contemporary Republic of Ghana is a democratic country in West Africa. It is named after the middle ages Ghana Empire of West Africa which existed from roughly the 4th through 13th centuries. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Ghana Empire began mining and trading gold, and in the 13th century the empire was conquered by the Kingdom of Melle.

In the 15th century, the first Europeans arrived in the location that had happened called the Gold Coast, the name the area would keep until it gained back self-reliance in 1957. The Portuguese got here initially and traded gold, ivory, and pepper with the Akan, the ethnic group that populated the Gold Coast and made up the Asante, Fante, and more. In the 15th century, individuals of the Gold Coast were not yet taken as slaves, but the Portuguese did offer servants from other parts of Africa to the Akan. The Dutch began to trade in the Gold Coast too at the end of the 16th century, and the British, Danes, and Swedes, among others, set up trade with tribes of Akan people in the 17th century.

Throughout the 17th century, the Akwamu managed the area, but throughout the 18th century the location was taken over by the Asante (likewise spelled Ashante or Ashanti). At this time of Asante power, Osei Tutu was the Asanthene and the capital was in Kumasi. At this time, the significant focus of trade also altered from gold to slaves. As lots of as 20 million Africans were sent throughout the Atlantic during this time. This was a rewarding era for numerous Akan people, especially the Akwamu, Fante and Asante, and the Asante were able to establish and protect Kumasi with the weapons and other Western products they traded for.

In the 18th century, the Asante fell from power. Britain, Denmark, and other European countries set up bans on the servant trade (though not on slavery itself) in between 1792 and 1807. The Asante also went to war with the Fante, who were supported by the British, throughout this time. Then, in 1824, Osei Bonsu, the Asantehene throughout the early 19th century, passed away. The British saw this as an opportunity to take control of the Gold Coast. Fights for control between the British and Asante stretched on up until 1874 when The Gold Coast officially became a British crown colony. The Asante remained, and withstood British control and impact throughout the early 20th century, however the British maintained control.

During and after The Second World War, the British colonial powers were weakened and the United States and USSR pressured for African self-reliance. Political parties supporting self-reliance developed within the Gold Coast, including the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC). Kwame Nkrumah, the party secretary for the UGCC, braked with the group in 1949 and formed the Convention People’s Celebration (CPP). Nkrumah was jailed in 1950, but launched in 1951; in 1952 he ended up being the very first African prime minister, sharing power with the British governor.

In 1957, the Republic of Ghana became the first of the nests in sub-Saharan Africa to gain self-reliance. Success followed, with stable trade, particularly of cocoa, and reasonably high levels of education. Nkrumah was chosen as president and ruled democratically till 1964 when, following economic decline, he declared a dictatorship. Following this, Nkrumah quickly lost popularity and the economy continued to spiral downward. Economic difficulty and political instability continued through the 1970s and early 1980s. Ghana went back to a democracy in the early 1990s and social jobs such as a system of nationwide health insurance showed the world Ghana’s progress and stability.