Interpretation To Kill A Mockingbird
E. Polyakova (401-a) Analysis of the extract from the unique “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee The passage under consideration is an extract from the book “To Kill a Mockingbird”, which was written by well-known American writer Harper Lee. “To Eliminate a Mockingbird” is her only one novel. It received nearly unanimous important acclaim and several awards, the Pulitzer Prize amongst them. A screen play adjustment of the book was recorded in 1962. George W. Bush presented Lee with the Governmental Medal of Flexibility. This is the highest civilian award in the United States and acknowledges people who have ade “a specifically meritorious contribution to the security or nationwide interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other considerable public or private ventures”. The text under analysis is social book (Harper Lee comes from the social realism). The first thing to be pointed out is the title; it provides us an expression of something criminal and severe. The title of “To Eliminate a Mockingbird” has extremely little actual connection to the plot, but it brings a great deal of symbolic weight in the book. In this story of innocents destroyed by evil, the “mockingbird” comes o represent the idea of innocence. Thus, to kill a mockingbird is to ruin innocence. Action is laid in the town in the state of Alabama, southern state where the prejudice is quite acute. So Harper Lee shows the approach of race in that passage. We can see here 2 main themes, such as race discrimination and upbringing children. The author’s message is two-fold, the first message is that in the face of court each and every human must be dealt with honestly, no matter what his social status, education or colour of skin is. The second message is bringing up a brand-new generation of Americans, who ould be more tolerant, simply, and humane. In this text there are no occasion’s chains, however it is represented by author’s speech. The subject is Tom Robinson’s case (which was resulted as the death punishment). The general tone (slant) of the text is remarkable and mental, because the passage handles race discrimination as the fantastic problem of that epoch. The basic atmosphere of this extract is rather tense. The author keeps the reader in suspense till the very end. The readers take their breath wishing to know that the Negro is innocent. However the uthor utilizes the impact of defeated span. The text falls out in 2 unequal parts:1) Atticus’s speech in the court. 2) The girl’s (Atticus’s daughter) narrative. They are written in various functional designs. Atticus’s speech is written in oratorical style and girl’s narrative provided in the belle-lettres style. Exposition presents the lead character, the location of action; here it is a description of the court room. It can be seen from the start of the extract till the “… wasn’t a thunderer”. Climax is the decision of the jury. Every “guilty” damages any reader’s expect ustice. Denouement– “Judge Taylor was ballot the jury …”. Postlogue is from “Judge Taylor was …” till the very end. The author represents the Atticus’s speech in direct type. If it was represented indirectly, the reader would not hear the attorney’s voice. On the contrary, the author’s point of view would prevail and the reader could believe the author foist his opinion. Atticus words in direct speech have more result on the reader. It develops such environment as if the reader remains in the court himself. The text is rather various in phrasing. On the first we can see ots of juridical terms and juridical set of phrases, 37 of them. For instance: evidence, to prosecute, capital charge, trial, case, cross- examination, regret, defendant, crime, witness. The abundance of juridical terms we can see in Atticis’s speech such as: to the result that, beyond all affordable doubt, to be flatly opposed, to motivate someone, destroy the evidence/offence. Atticus is a terrific thinker and supporter of American democracy. The terms and set expressions make Atticus’s speech really persuading and well-grounded. His aim is to impress the court ith his speech. Terms define Atticus Finch as an excellent and knowledgeable attorney and also reveal his fantastic education. On the second location we can see great deals of antonyms. Complete antonyms are “black and white”, “the witness for the state and the witness for defense”, “old and young”, “man and woman”, “idle and industrious”. Partial antonyms are “the state and the defense”, “supreme court and J. P. court”. And contextual antonyms are “silly and idle”, “each man and jury”, “stupid man and the Einstein”. Antonyms reveal sets of values, such as moral, social and etc. And hi show the American society of 1930s as well, where the society was split into 2 countries: black and white. In his speech we can come across with abstract notions too. Here we can see notions from approach, sociology, psychology and principles (fact, guilt, race, life ant etc). Also we can see features of colloquial style such as asking the audience questions as the speaker attempts to reach closer contact. The author used a great deal of colloquial words such as Negro, foolish and evil, crashing down etc. Also there is a big range of literary and bookish words. All these linguistic gadgets characterise Atticus as a rogressive thinker and a genuine resident of his nation, who is committed to humour ideas, democratic concepts, about future of U. S., tolerance and humanity of the people. Atticus utilizes a number of syntactical patterns, such as: addresses (to attract the attention) and rhetoric questions. This is normal for oratory. His speech though extremely complicated is rather lucid and transparent. In the extract we can see such rhetorical devices as anaphora, anadiplosis, epiphora and framing. Anaphora– „ She has devoted no criminal offense … she has merely broken … she is a victim”. She s important in order to draw in the attention of Mayella’s regret. Anadiplosis– “He is flatly opposed by the accused … The defendant is not guilty … I has absolutely nothing however pity”. Epiphora– “He needs to be removed … She lured a Negro … She kissed a black male, a strong young Negro male”. Framing is utilized to persuade the jury. The author used parallel buildings to stress how narrow- minded people could be when they generalize. The court is probably the only place where all generalizations must be prevented. It is a criminal activity to find someone guilty without deserving proof and evidence.
To conclude, Atticus is a very fantastic orator. He is a genuine hero, who safeguards the Negro; in those times it was truly heroic deed. The story was told on behalf of Jean Louise, Atticus’s child. It made the story more brilliant, tense and emotional. As a child she noticed a lot of details which were uncommon for Atticus. Lady’s narrative is intentionally simplified, since children do not think in abstract notions and she is just 7 years old. So here in her narrative we can see lots of concrete parts of speech. The very first that must be mentioned is concrete nous, they are ountable and here are numerous examples (papers, brief-case, chair, letter, chain, button, pen, pencil, collar, vest, and coat). They are used in order to assist to visualise the scenario. On the second location are verbs. In the text we face with verbs of action (to pull, to toy, to follow, to unhitch, to unbutton, to loosen up, to remove). They are utilized to make the photo more dynamic. It is counterbalance to Atticus’s speech. As far as two parts of the text are written in 2 functional designs, the linguistic and stylistic means of expressiveness are various in both parts.
In order to stress the actions and conditions of the heroes, the author uses the stylistic gadgets which are admirable. The text is abundant with repetitions (some people would have us believe– some people are smarter than others, some people have more opportunity, some individuals make more money than others, some ladies make much better cakes than others– some people are born talented beyond the normal scope of many guys. ). Repetitions and numerous parallel buildings permit the legal representative to seem more convincing, to make people study his words, to make his speech more clear for the audience. Scout informs us about the response of the jury, and
Harper Lee conceals paradox in her words: “and the jury appeared to be attentive: their heads were up, and they followed Atticus’s path with what seemed to be gratitude”; lexical repetition of the word “appear’ combined withsyntactical parallelism heightens the paradox. Moreover stylistic devices are figured out by the conditions of interaction: jury represents uneducated and unliterary individuals. Atticus assures the jury that the case is very simple– with the aid of gradation and antithesis: “… this case is not a difficult one, it needs no minute sifting of complicated facts, however it does equire you to be sure beyond all affordable doubt as to the regret of the defendant. This case needs to never have actually pertained to trial”. He sums it up by allusive simile: “this case is as easy as black and white’. Then Atticus informs the public his own variation of the occasions. He used antithesis, lexical repeating, epithets. Atticus highlights the absurdity of the case by lexical and syntactical repeating combined with antithesis “She lured a Negro. She was white, and she tempted a Negro”, and also by an ironical epithet “offensive”. Various epithets and similes were used to reveal the uthor’s attitude. Epithets give personal appraisal of the author, his specific viewpoint. They communicate his emotions. (Judge tailor’s voice … was tiny). This epithet can express the doubt of the judge. He uses metaphors “distaff side” and “tossing at us” with meaning to excite negative emotions and readdresses them. He brings an example of schools where the dumb and idle are promoted with the industrious (substantivized adjectives), and then underlines that all males are not produced equivalent, employingsyntactical parallelism accompanied by anaphora: “some people are smarter than thers, some individuals have more chance, some guy make more money than others, some women make much better cakes than others– some people are born gifted beyond the typical scope of the majority of men”. To summarize, I can say, that the extract provides a false impression of the book. It is committed to childhood first, and the story with Tom Robinson is simply an episode in it, though giving much for thinking. The idea of the battle in between justice and injustice is given their unobtrusively. And I believe, that in some cases it is important for a kid to see injustice to know, how important justice is.