Madeline LaRossa October 24, 2012 C07789454 Prospective Outcomes of Development: Orwell’s 1984 1) Summary of the Book 1984 is an eye-opening novel written by George Orwell. Orwell composed the novel in 1949 to describe how he predicted society would remain in 1984 if development continued upon its current track. Orwell published the book as a warning that society should beware about progress for progress’s sake, or conditions might wind up similar to the way society is in his work 1984.
The book is divided into 3 chapters, or books, each with multiple subunits, and these areas tell the story in chronological order.
The book ends with an appendix on the principles of newspeak, the new language of Oceania. The novel follows Winston Smith’s experiences in London in 1984. Smith is a low-ranking member of “the Party,” the all-controlling ruling entity of their county Oceania. The Celebration (represented by Huge Brother) has telescreens (two-way microphones and cameras) and spies everywhere with the purpose of finding and snuffing out anybody who is not totally and unquestioningly devoted to the Celebration.
The citizens of Oceania are not allowed to own their own home, are not enabled any privacy (even in their ideas), are not encouraged to have libidos, are required to live under stringent rations in constant wartimes, and are required to modify their memories and records as The Celebration chooses. The book focuses on Smith’s secret disobedience of the Party; he believes he signs up with an underground resistance movement Nevertheless, he is ultimately recorded and tortured into truthful belief of everything that the Celebration and Big Bro claim and represent. 2) Summary of the Chapters
The beginning of the first chapter happens in April of 1984 and introduces the reader to the book’s protagonist, Winston Smith. Smith is coming home to his shabby apartment building (ironically called “Triumph Mansions”) and reflects both on his problematic varicose ulcer and on the big posters plastered all over, all advertising the same blown-up face and mentioning “Big Bro is Viewing You.” The reader finds out that although Smith is a low-ranking member of the Party, he is still under their oppressive control. Smith enters his apartment or condo and beings in the alcove in his oom hidden from the telescreen; he proceeds to devote “thoughtcrime” by composing his true feelings against the Celebration in his secret journal. In the 2nd and third parts of the chapter, Winston assesses how there are spies everywhere looking for thoughtcrime and how a parent’s own child will turn him in. Winston thinks about his youth and how the Celebration has falsified historical records as they pleased, although Winston is not permitted to acknowledge and even be having these thoughts. Winston likewise assesses a male named O’Brien, with whom he works and whom he thinks may likewise covertly question the Celebration as he does.
In the middle of the first chapter, Smith goes to his job at the Celebration, where he falsifies old records in order to represent the Celebration continuously changing war enemies and getting rid of questioning people. While at work, Winston hears an announcement from The Celebration specifying that they are increasing rations, when Winston truly knows that they are decreasing them. Winston observes how everybody thinks this unquestioningly, but then questions if he has provided himself away when he understands that a dark-haired female has actually been watching him.
When he goes home, Smith composes in his journal about how he would enjoy to have a steamy sexual affair because the Celebration dissuades sex for any means other than reproduction. In the close of the very first chapter, Smith composes in his journal about how any hope for disobedience depends on the “proles,” the lowest class in Oceania, and a rumored secretive resistance group called “The Brotherhood.” Smith thinks about how bad the conditions are that everyone lives in, however then realizes that nobody has any previous better conditions to compare it to, thanks to the Party altering all historical records.
He writes about how he once had concrete evidence that the Party was lying about the past, and he repeats his suspicion that O’Brien shares his beliefs towards the Party. Winston ultimately walks into the proles’ district and slips into a forbidden shop to buy a paperweight, a relic from the past. As he is leaving the shop, he recognizes that the very same dark-haired woman is watching him and thinks that she is a spy for the thought cops, and that he has definitely been discovered and will be gotten rid of. The second chapter begins with the dark-haired lady slipping Smith a note at work saying that she enjoys him.
The 2 eventually make secret plans to meet far out in the country, and Smith learns that her name is Julia. The two ultimately do meet and make love hidden in the countryside, merely for the purpose of satisfaction and defying the Party. Julia and Smith then return to their particular houses, thinking themselves undiscovered. Smith then rents a space above the shop where he previously bought the paperweight. Julia and Smith fulfill in the space whenever possible to make love and share in the contraband food and beverage they are able to get.
As the people prepare for a big political movement supporting Oceania in its ever-going war, O’Brien makes contact with Smith and organizes a secret conference between the two, verifying Smith’s suspicions about O’Brien’s disloyalty to the Party. Winston and Julia continue to meet in the space above the store, and eventually, the 2 fit to fulfill O’Brien at his home. O’Brien turns off his telescreen (as he can do this since he is an upper-Party member) and employs Smith and Julia in The Brotherhood’s secret efforts to topple the Party.
O’Brien tells them that he will organize to have The Brotherhood’s book of objectives and truths provided to Smith, and after that bids them on their way. Smith does acquire the book, and the chapter ends with Smith and Julia reading it in their rented space. The book reveals all of the Party’s lies and lectures on the Celebration’s ever-increased desire for total control over all. The next early morning, Julia and Smith understand that they have actually been discovered by the Celebration’s thought authorities; the two are cornered in their space and restrained into custody. The last chapter opens with Smith locked up in the Ministry of Love, among the Party’s three departments.
Smith is originally still confident for the Brotherhood, but he then sees O’Brien there working for the Party; Smith realizes that O’Brien has really been an undercover member of the Party’s believed authorities the whole time, which the Brotherhood has never ever actually existed. O’Brien begins to abuse Smith, trying to impress The Celebration’s perfects and principles into Smith. Smith initially resists, but after weeks of torture, he yields on all aspects of the Celebration and its mentors other than for one: Smith still declines to betray his feelings for Julia.
Smith is transferred to more comfortable quarters in the department and is content for a while, till he unintentionally reveals his prevailing love for Julia. O’Brien brings Smith to the notorious “Room 101,” where everyone is tortured with his or her worst fear. There, Smith is threatened with rats that will slowly consume him, so he lastly renounces his love for Julia. At the very end of the last chapter, the story jumps to when Smith has actually been released back into society. Smith now truthfully believes in everything that the Celebration does and represents and he appreciates them whole-heartedly.
He runs into Julia by opportunity, however they both are now different individuals and go their different ways. Smith ultimately has a fleeting memory of his youth however rapidly dismisses it as a false memory, congratulating himself on his victory over himself and his unquestioning love for Big Bro. An appendix follows the last chapter of the book, describing some of the vocabulary and grammatical structures of Oceania’s main language, New-speak. 3) Relation In Between the Book and Class Materials Orwell’s 1984 holds excellent importance to the subjects we have recently covered in class.
First of all, 1984 references, on a number of occasions, then tendency for people to get drawn into mass beliefs, doing things without knowing why they are doing them. In class, we referred to this as “cumulative behavior,” and specified it as “habits that doesn’t include that deliberate analysis– rather we just get swept up and serve as others are acting” (Weinstein, 2012). As an example, we talked about how individuals get swept up at a basketball game and respond favorably merely due to the fact that everybody around them is doing so, without specifically thinking about or examining it.
We discussed how this can also lead to “circular response,” when a person reacts off of the individual next to them, and after that the individual beside them responds based upon the original person, and so on, causing amplification of the original reaction. 1984 touches on this concept numerous times. Early in the unique, the character Smith reviews something called “the 2 Minutes Hate,” in which everybody collects once a day and merely hates and yells out against Oceania’s wartime enemy.
Smith realizes that the mass hysteria of everyone around him can even alter his own beliefs temporarily, as Orwell writes, “At those minutes his secret loathing of Big Bro became adoration, and Huge Sibling appeared to tower up, like a rock versus the crowds of Asia …” (Orwell 15). Later in the book, Smith discusses how the ignorant Proles get swept up into minutes of blind patriotism without truly knowing or understanding what they are rooting for.
Smith notices that “The poles, usually apathetic about the war, were being lashed into among their periodical crazes of patriotism” and recognizes that the upper Party motivates this behavior in lots of slick ways, including propaganda and mind control (Orwell 149). Orwell yet again desires us to comprehend the dangers of this habits as he writes “Times beyond number, at Celebration rallies and spontaneous demonstrations, she [Julia] had actually screamed at the top of her voice for the execution of individuals whose names she had actually never ever heard and in whose supposed criminal activities she had not the faintest belief” (Orwell 152).
Orwell impresses upon the reader the significance of combating this meaningless behavior considering that this mindlessness can be really dangerous. We went over in lecture how historically, people have typically gotten swept up into mindless bureaucracy, doing things just because everyone else is or because it is what they are used to doing or are informed to do. We talked about how dangerous this might be– it can enable a bureaucracy to acquire far more power than it ever ought to have the ability to, because its residents do not question the things that the government does and executes, as happens in 1984.
Second of all, the characteristics of progress and the ways innovation affects it play a big role both in 1984 and in our class conversations. Early on in the work, 1984 overlaps some of the subjects we have actually covered in class as Orwell recommendations a few of the numerous manner ins which “progress” is displayed in a society; Orwell composes, “The Party declared, for example, that today forty per cent of adult proles were literate; before the Transformation, it was stated, the number had actually only been fifteen per cent.
The Party claimed that the baby mortality rate was now just a hundred and sixty per thousand, whereas before the Transformation it had actually been 3 hundred …” (Orwell 74). Simply as Orwell uses elements such as literacy rates and infant death rates to determine progress in society, we also found out in class that these can be essential indicators of how a society is changing, along with death rates and other statistics. Similar to how we learned in class that development just for progress’s sake must be prevented as it can cause destructive results, Orwell is warning against this very event all through 1984.
More particularly, Orwell warns against the threats of extreme technological developments: “Science and technology were establishing at a prodigious speed, and it seemed natural to assume that they would go on developing. This failed to happen … partly since clinical and technical progress depend on the empirical practice of thought … As an entire the world is more primitive today than it was fifty years earlier” (Orwell 189).
Orwell later on warns that technology can indeed destroy our personal lives by enabling us to be constantly watched and submitted to endless propaganda. The character Smith contemplates this when he states “Every resident, or at least every resident crucial adequate to be worth seeing, might be kept for twenty-four hours a day under the eyes of the cops and in the sound of official propaganda … The possibility of implementing not just total obedience to the will of the State, however complete uniformity of opinion on all subjects, now existed for the very first time” (Orwell 206).
We discussed this very possibility in class when we spoke about how residents of today’s society are developed innovation that is smarter than us, and about how harmful this could be towards the security of our society when it comes to a technological revolt. Teacher Weinstein also explained how excessive innovation can make it even easier for federal government can manage us and acquire power excessively; he explained that the federal government might be watching us right now through the webcams on our laptops and listening to us through our phones.
In addition, both our class lectures and 1984 reference aspects of a class system and a hierarchal society. First of all, when we went over in class the attributes of a bureaucracy, we spoke about the concept of ascribed versus accomplished statuses. We discovered that in the household setting, a status is ascribed– a person is born into their position. However, in an administration such as that present in 1984, a status is instead something that should be worked for and made– it is an achieved status. 1984 touches on this in the secret Brotherhood’s book, as the book lectures “In principle, subscription in these 3 groups is not genetic.
The kid of Inner Celebration parents is in theory not born into the Inner Celebration. Admission to either branch of the Party is by assessment, taken at the age of sixteen” (Orwell 208). In lecture, we learned that given that statuses are accomplished in an administration rather of ascribed, the power of the status is held by the position itself, not the individual that holds the position. In other words, we found out that in a bureaucracy, a person is simply filling a function that could be filled by anybody; if a person dies or no longer wishes to hold their position, it can rapidly be filled by another person.
People, or a policeman, for instance, only hold power since of their uniform and task, not because of who they are on an individual, private level. 1984 also teaches this idea; at one point, Julia is revealing how pleased she is to finally leave her generic job position in the Party and rather merely be an individual woman as she exclaims, “In this room I’m going to be a female, not a Celebration comrade” (Orwell 142). 4) Relation In Between the Book and a Personal Experience 1984 and its teachings hold close relation to a personal experience I just recently had.
Last week, I had a big task that I was attempting to do for one of my classes. I settled in to begin working on the paper, however then my phone sounded. I got since it was my mom, and I wound up involved in a half an hour conversation. I ultimately hung up with my mother and went back to the paper, however right after, I heard someone start talking with me from my computer! I soon understood that I had actually accidentally left my video messaging on my computer, behind the screen on which I was writing the paper, and among my friends had actually seen that I was online and started video chatting me.
Given that she had actually started the discussion, I was then obligated to hold a discussion with her in order to not be disrespectful. All the while, I was sidetracked from working on my task. As soon as we finished talking and I shut off my chat program, I was lured to examine my e-mail prior to I got back to my paper, but I understood that if I did, I might undoubtedly never ever get to my paper. This revealed me that innovation certainly can be hazardous towards development, not just on a large societal scale, but also as far as the simple task of composing my paper.
All of the ways of innovation that my pals were utilizing to contact me were simply attacking my personal privacy while I was trying to focus and have a personal evening to do a task. Reading 1984 only supported and increased my awareness of how distracting technology can be, and how hazardous and destructive it can in fact be in the grand plan of development. 5) Review of the Unique 1984 has lots of positive aspects. I actually took pleasure in how Orwell utilized a fictional situation to teach readers and alert them versus hazardous conditions instead of just lecturing the readers about what they should and ought to not be doing.
I liked this because although a lecture-style presentation of material teaches important ideas, I feel that putting these concepts into a theoretical story assists the reader to keep in mind the ideas and understand how they can be virtually applied in reality. Although the ending is sad for the reader (as it snuffs out all hope that anybody could hold out versus the Celebration’s mind control and extreme practices), I liked it since I thought it was important to drive Orwell’s teachings house.
I felt that this ending was necessary because through the way things ended, Orwell showed that if society continued as it remained in 1949, conditions would eventually get so bad that even the most intelligent people would not have the ability to undermine and revolt versus the political entity, and there would be no hope. I feel that this was necessary because it reveals simply how important it was that people altered the course down which society was headed. I am hard-pressed to discover anything that I do not like about Orwell’s work.
Eventuallies throughout the very first half of the book, I wondered if Orwell’s long and comprehensive description of the conditions and unmentioned guidelines of Oceania was really needed, however as I read farther in the book, I recognized that all of the descriptions were undoubtedly necessary so that the reader would fully understand and comprehend all of the horrors that were in shop if society’s existing track was not thwarted. All in all, I really enjoyed this book, and it assisted me to even more comprehend lots of principles that we went over in lecture.
When it was released in 1949, 1984 was, and remains as such now, a mind-blowing warning of the method our lives will alter if we ever enable our society and federal government to run away with itself by striving for progress just for development’s sake. Citations Orwell, George. 1984. New York City: Penguin Group, 1949. Weinstein, Jay. Class Lecture. The Components of Change. University of Miami, Miami, Florida. 9 October 2012. Weinstein, Jay. Class Lecture. The Engines of Change. University of Miami, Miami, Florida. 16 October 2012.